Asthma Triggers

Secondhand Smoke

About secondhand smoke and asthma

Secondhand smoke is the smoke from a cigarette, cigar or pipe, and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Secondhand smoke contains more than 4,000 substances, including several compounds that cause cancer.

Secondhand smoke can trigger asthma episodes and increase the severity of attacks. Secondhand smoke is also a risk factor for new cases of asthma in preschool-aged children. Children's developing bodies make them more susceptible to the effects of secondhand smoke and, due to their small size, they breathe more rapidly than adults, thereby taking in more secondhand smoke. Children receiving high doses of secondhand smoke, such as those with smoking parents, run the greatest relative risk of experiencing damaging health effects.

Dust Mites

About dust mites and asthma

Dust mites are tiny bugs that are too small to see. Every home has dust mites. They feed on human skin flakes and are found in mattresses, pillows, carpets, upholstered furniture, bedcovers, clothes, stuffed toys and fabric and fabric-covered items.

Body parts and droppings from dust mites can trigger asthma in individuals with allergies to dust mites. Exposure to dust mites can cause asthma in children who have not previously exhibited asthma symptoms.

Actions you can take

  • Wash bedding in hot water once a week. Dry completely.
  • Use dust proof covers on pillows and mattresses.
  • Vacuum carpets and furniture every week.
  • Choose stuffed toys that you can wash. Wash stuffed toys in hot water. Dry completely before your child plays with the toy.

Common house dust may also contain asthma triggers. These simple steps can help:

  • Dust often with a damp cloth.
  • Vacuum carpet and fabric-covered furniture to reduce dust build-up using a high efficiency (HEPA) filter. People with asthma or allergies should leave the area being vacuumed.

Molds

About molds and asthma

Molds are microscopic fungi that live on plant and animal matter. Molds can be found almost anywhere when moisture is present.

Molds create tiny spores to reproduce, just as plants produce seeds. Mold spores float through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on damp places indoors, they may begin growing.

For people sensitive to molds, inhaling mold spores can trigger an asthma attack.

Actions you can take

  • If mold is a problem in your home, you need to clean up the mold and eliminate sources of moisture.
  • If you see mold on hard surfaces, clean it up with soap and water. Let the area dry completely.
  • Use exhaust fans or open a window in the bathroom and kitchen when showering, cooking or washing dishes.
  • Fix water leaks as soon as possible to keep mold from growing.
  • Dry damp or wet things completely within one to two days to keep mold from growing.
  • Maintain low indoor humidity, ideally between 30-50% relative humidity. Humidity levels can be measured by hygrometers, which are available at local hardware stores.

Cockroaches

Droppings or body parts of cockroaches and other pests can trigger asthma. Certain proteins are found in cockroach feces and saliva and can cause allergic reactions or trigger asthma symptoms in some individuals.

Cockroaches are commonly found in crowded cities and the southern regions of the United States. Cockroach allergens likely play a significant role in asthma in many urban areas.

Actions you can take

  • Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and free of clutter.
  • Clean dishes, crumbs and spills right away.
  • Store food in airtight containers.
  • Seal cracks or openings around or inside cabinets.

Insecticides and pesticides are not only toxic to pests — they can harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk.

Pets

Proteins in your pet's skin flakes, urine, feces, saliva and hair can trigger asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma in individuals with an allergy to animal dander.

The most effective method to control animal allergens in the home is to not allow animals in the home. If you remove an animal from the home, it is important to thoroughly clean the floors, walls, carpets and upholstered furniture.

Some individuals may find isolation measures to be sufficiently effective. Isolation measures that have been suggested include keeping pets out of the sleeping areas, keeping pets away from upholstered furniture, carpets, and stuffed toys, keeping the pet outdoors as much as possible and isolating sensitive individuals from the pet as much as possible.

Actions you can take

  • Find another home for your cat or dog.
  • Keep pets outside if possible.
  • If you have to have a pet inside, keep it out of the bedroom of the person with asthma.
  • Keep pets off of your furniture.
  • Vacuum carpets and furniture when the person with asthma is not around.

Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an odorless gas that can irritate your eyes, nose and throat and cause shortness of breath. NO2 can come from appliances inside your home that burn fuels such as gas, kerosene and wood. NO2 forms quickly from emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants and off-road equipment. Smoke from your stove or fireplace can trigger asthma.

In people with asthma, exposure to low levels of NO2 may cause increased bronchial reactivity and make young children more susceptible to respiratory infections. Long-term exposure to high levels of NO2 can lead to chronic bronchitis. Studies show a connection between breathing elevated short-term NO2concentrations, and increased visits to emergency departments and hospital admissions for respiratory issues, especially asthma.

Actions you can take

If possible, use fuel-burning appliances that are vented to the outside. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions on how to use these appliances.

  • Gas cooking stoves: If you have an exhaust fan in the kitchen, use it when you cook. Never use the stove to keep you warm or heat your house.
  • Unvented kerosene or gas space heaters: Use the proper fuel and keep the heater adjusted the right way. Open a window slightly or use an exhaust fan when you are using the heater.

Outdoor Air Pollution

Outdoor air pollution is caused by small particles and ground level ozone that comes from car exhaust, smoke, road dust and factory emissions. Outdoor air quality is also affected by pollen from plants, crops and weeds. Particle pollution can be high any time of year and are higher near busy roads and where people burn wood.

When inhaled, outdoor pollutants and pollen can aggravate the lungs, and can lead to chest pain, coughing, digestive problems, dizziness, fever, lethargy, sneezing, shortness of breath, throat irritation and watery eyes. Outdoor air pollution and pollen may also worsen chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma.


Actions you can take

  • Monitor the Air Quality Index on your local weather report.
  • Know when and where air pollution may be bad.
  • Regular exercise is healthy. Check your local air quality to know when to play and when to take it a little easier.
  • Schedule outdoor activities at times when the air quality is better. In the summer, this may be in the morning.
  • Stay inside with the windows closed on high pollen days and when pollutants are high.
  • Use your air conditioner to help filter the air coming into the home. Central air systems are the best.
  • Remove indoor plants if they irritate or produce symptoms for you or your family.
  • Pay attention to asthma warning signs. If you start to see signs, limit outdoor activity. Be sure to talk about this with your child's doctor.

Chemical Irritants

About chemical irritants and asthma

Chemical irritants are found in some products in your house and may trigger asthma. Your asthma or your child's asthma may be worse around products such as cleaners, paints, adhesives, pesticides, cosmetics or air fresheners. Chemical irritants are also present in schools and can be found in commonly used cleaning supplies and educational kits.

Chemical irritants may exacerbate asthma. At sufficient concentrations in the air, many products can trigger a reaction.

Actions you can take

If you find that your asthma or your child's asthma gets worse when you use a certain product, consider trying different products.

If you must use a product, then you should:

  • Make sure your child is not around.
  • Open windows or doors, or use an exhaust fan.
  • Always follow the instructions on the product label.

Wood Smoke

Smoke from wood-burning stoves and fireplaces contain a mixture of harmful gases and small particles. Breathing these small particles can cause asthma attacks and severe bronchitis, aggravate heart and lung disease and may increase the likelihood of respiratory illnesses. If you're using a wood stove or fireplace and smell smoke in your home, it probably isn't working as it should.

Actions you can take

  • To help reduce smoke, make sure to burn dry wood that has been split, stacked, covered and stored for at least 6 months.
  • Have your stove and chimney inspected every year by a certified professional to make sure there are no gaps, cracks, unwanted drafts or to remove dangerous creosote
    build-up.
  • If possible, replace your old wood stove with a new, cleaner heating appliance. Newer wood stoves are at least 50% more efficient and pollute 70% less than older models.
    This can help make your home healthier and safer and help cut fuel costs.

Source
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

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